Frequent tobacco and alcohol consumption are the worst risk factors for a malign tumor of the larynx. If both are present, the risk increases further. As compared to other cancer types, tobacco and alcohol consumption do not represent an unspecific risk factor for larynx cancer: They facilitate the formation of degenerated cells in the throat, which are malign cells! These changed (mutated) cells grow and lead to a larynx carcinoma.
Viruses can also lead to larynx cancer. Scientists found genetic material of viruses in the changed cancer cells of some patients. Toxic materials like asbestos, nickel, chrome and benzyprene are also risk factors. Researchers also suspect an involvement of the genes.